Fri. Oct 7th, 2022

COVID-19 glossary at your fingertips

Author: | Posted on: Friday, April 17th, 2020

    1. Active surveillance – Active surveillance (AK-tiv ser-VAY-lents) A treatment plan that involves closely watching a patient’s condition but not giving any treatment unless there are changes in test results that show the condition is getting worse.
    2. ANM – Auxiliary Nurse Midwifery. It is the healthcare profession that is focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so that they may attain and maintain a healthy life from conception to death.
    3. Arogya Setu App – Aarogya Setu is a mobile application developed by the Government of India to connect essential health services with the people of India to combat COVID-19. The App aims to augment the initiatives of the Government of India, particularly the Department of Health, in proactively reaching out to and informing the users of the app regarding risks, best practices and relevant advisories pertaining to the containment of COVID-19.
    4. ART – Standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) consists of the combination of at least three antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to maximally suppress the HIV virus and stop the progression of HIV disease.
    5. ASHA workers – An accredited social health activist (ASHA) is a community health worker instituted by the government of India’s Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) as a part of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM).
    6. AYUSH -The Ministry of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy is purposed with developing education, research and propagation of indigenous alternative medicine systems in India.
    7. Basic Life Support Ambulance (BLSA) – Basic Life Support (BLS) is for patients who require medical transportation and continuous medical supervision /monitoring
    8. BCG vaccine – Bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccine is a vaccine primarily used against tuberculosis
    9. BEE; Block Extension Educators are the designated communication staff that will be allocated the work of public education outreach on COVID-19.
    10. Betacoronavirus –  Betacoronaviruses known to be associated with (mainly) rhinolophid bats across the Palearctic.
    11. Biohazard bags – All PPEs to be disposed of in a Biohazard Bag (yellow) 
    12. BOI – Bureau of Immigration (BoI) was set up in 1971 by the Government of India to undertake Immigration functions in the country. BoI along with plays a key role in immigration, facilitation and registration of foreigners at airports as per various Acts and Rules.
    13. Category of patients – (Group 1) The patient is to be in COVID care centre preferably in an individual room till results are confirmed. (Group 2) The patient is to be in Dedicated Covid Health Centre or Dedicated Covid Hospital till results are confirmed. ( Groups 3) The patient is to be directly admitted to the Dedicated Covid Hospital ICU till results are obtained. 
    14. CBNAAT – Cartridge Based Nucleic Acid Amplification test.  According to the 2017 annual report by Central TB division, under MOHFW; CBNAAT is used for Diagnosis of drug resistant TB among previously treated TB patients.  The National Institute of Research in Tuberculosis says that CB-NAAT… test detects Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB) and Rifampicin (Rif) resistance conferring mutations directly from specimen
    15. CCCCovid Care Center has been set-up under a three-tier model with a dedicated facility to handle suspect and confirmed COVID-19 cases. The three types of facilities will be linked to the Surveillance team (IDSP) These facilities will follow strict infection prevention and control practices.
    16. CDC: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.The CDC is based in Atlanta, Georgia. It publishes key health information, including weekly data on all deaths and diseases reported in the US and travelers’ health advisories. The CDC also fields special rapid-response teams to halt epidemic diseases. 
    17. CDSCO – The Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) under Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare. Major functions of CDSCO include regulatory control over the import of drugs, approval of new drugs and clinical trials, meetings of Drugs Consultative Committee (DCC) and Drugs Technical Advisory Board (DTAB), approval of certain licenses as Central License Approving Authority.
    18. Clinical Management of COVID – 19: This document is intended for clinicians taking care of hospitalised adult and paediatric patients of COVID – 19 issued on March 31st 2020
    19. Cloth Mask– A mask made out of common textiles used to cover the nose and mouth.
    20. Community Transmission -The term community transmission means that the source of infection for the spread of an illness is unknown or a link in terms of contacts between patients and other people is missing. It refers to the difficulty in grasping the epidemiological link in the community beyond confirmed cases.
    21. Community Healthcare Centres – A healthcare center, health center, or community health center is one of a network of clinics staffed by a group of general practitioners and nurses providing healthcare services to people in a certain area.
    22. CHO:Community Health officer  
    23. Community participation – Community participation can be loosely defined as the involvement of people in a community in projects to solve their own problems.
    24. Contacting Tracing – The contacts of the laboratory confirmed cases/ suspect cases of COVID-19 will be line listed. These contacts will be tracked by an assigned ANM/ASHA/Anganwadi Worker of that sector and kept under home quarantine for 14 days. They will be monitored for clinically compatible signs and symptoms of COVID-19 for 28 days in total. If the residential address of the contact is beyond the containment zone or in adjoining district / State, the district IDSP will inform the concerned District IDSP information about these contacts.
    25. Containment Zone for surveillance: It will be an area within 3 km radius of a Covid positive patient’s residence {Epicentre). Each containment zone will have at least one hotspot.
    26. CTRI – Clinical Trial Registry of India hosted at the ICMR’s National Institute of Medical Statistics, is a free and online public record system for registration of clinical trials being conducted in India that was launched on 20th July 2007.
    27. Coverall/Gowns – Coverall/gowns are designed to protect torso of healthcare providers from exposure to virus
    28. COVID-19 is the infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered corona virus.
    29. COVID-19 Testing Laboratories– The lab where the testing for coronavirus are being conducted in India. 
    30. Corona Warriors – The people who are working to provide facilities to reduce the spread of disease. 
    31. CSIR : Council of Scientific and Industrial research is a contemporary Research &Development organization. Having a pan-India presence, CSIR has a dynamic network of 38 national laboratories, 39 outreach centres, 3 Innovation Complexes and 5 units. 
    32. DAE: Department of Atomic Energy has been engaged in the development of nuclear power technology, applications of radiation technologies in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry and basic research.
    33. DBT: Department of Biotechnology was envisioned to promote education, Research and Development in Biotechnology.
    34. DCHC – Dedicated COVID Health Centre (DCHC) The Dedicated COVID Health Centre are hospitals that shall offer care for all cases that have been clinically assigned as moderate.
    35. DH: Districts Hospitals
    36. DGCA – Director General of Civil Aviation.The Directorate General of Civil Aviation is the statutory body formed under the Aircraft Bill, 2020
    37. Disinfectant- Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents designed to inactivate or destroy microorganisms on inert surfaces.
    38. DNR : Do-Not-Resuscitate Order is a medical order written by a doctor. It instructs health care providers not to do cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if a patient’s breathing stops or if the patient’s heart stops beating.
    39. DOTS – Directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS, also known as TB-DOTS) is the name given to the tuberculosis (TB) control strategy recommended by the World Health Organization.
    40. DRDO : Defence Research and development organization is the R&D wing of Ministry of Defence, Govt of India, with a vision to empower India with cutting-edge defence technologies and a mission to achieve self-reliance in critical defence technologies and systems, while equipping our armed forces with state-of-the-art weapon systems and equipment in accordance with requirements laid down by the three Services.
    41. DST: Department of Science & Technology plays a pivotal role in promotion of science & technology in the country. 
    42. DVDMS – Drugs and Vaccines Distribution System (DVDMS) is a web based supply chain management application deals with Purchase, Inventory Management & Distribution of various drugs, sutures and surgical items to various Regional/District Drug Warehouses (DWH) of States, District Hospitals (DH), Community Health Centre (CHC) and Primary Health Centre (PHC), Sub centres to distribute drugs to patient, the final consumer of the supply chain.
    43. Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897: An Act to provide for the better prevention of the spread of Dangerous Epidemic Diseases in India
    44. Epidemic: It refers to an increase, often sudden, in the number of cases of a disease above what is normally expected in that population in that area.
    45. Epidemiology: It is the study of how often diseases occur in different groups of people and why. Epidemiological information is used to plan and evaluate strategies to prevent illness and as a guide to the management of patients in whom disease has already developed.
    46. Essential services: The Ministry of Home Affairs has issued guidelines on what constitutes to Essential Services during the Covid-19 national ‘Lockdown’
    47. ESIC – Employees State Insurance Corporation. It is a state-run organization established under the 1948 Employee State Insurance Act and is responsible for the administration of the ESI Scheme. The organization aims to provide social security to the labourers and employees who earn below Rs. 25000 in India, including their family members.
    48. Exempt Activities from Lockdown: Ministry of Home Affairs issues guidelines on Exemption of certain activities
    49. Face shields: protection of the mucous membranes of the eyes/nose/mouth by using face shields/ goggles is an integral part of standard and contact precautions.
    50. FCI – The Food Corporation of India is an organization created and run by the Government of India. It is a statutory body under the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, Government of India.
    51. Fever clinic – Fever clinics are dedicated facilities to assess, test , treat and reassure people. And where necessary, to triage them through the healthcare system. 
    52. Flattening the curve – It is the process of slowing the spread of virus depending on people’s participation in adhering to preventative measures, such as hand-sanitising, social distance and social isolation. The measure will enable fewer people needing to seek treatment at any given time. The flattening of the curve will also reduce the overload on the hospital. The Health care staff will be well equipped to deal with a limited number of patients at a time.
    53. FRU – First Referral Units (FRU) provides comprehensive obstetric care services including like cesarean section,  newborn care,emergency care of sick children, full range of family planning services, safe abortion services treatment of STI/RTI availability of blood storage unit and referral transport services. 
    54. GACD – Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases (GACD) is a collection of the world’s biggest public research funding agencies. We fund joint programmes into life-style related or chronic diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, certain cancers, lung diseases and mental health).
    55. GISRS – Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System has been conducted through WHO’s Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS) since 1952.GISRS is a system fostering global confidence and trust for over half a century, through effective collaboration and sharing of viruses, data and benefits based on Member States’ commitment to a global public health model.
    56. Gloves: a covering for the hand worn for protection of healthcare workers. Nitrile gloves are preferred over latex gloves because they resist chemicals, including certain disinfectants such as chlorine
    57. GOI Government of India
    58. Green Zone – Non-Infected District or No positive Covid-19 cases in the last 28 days. Although, the health agencies will be monitoring health-wise indicators of the district. Minimum restriction on public movement grounds of health applies on these districts.
    59. Guideline on wearing masks for public: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, India relays evidence based information to the general public on use of masks.
    60. Hand sanitizer : Hand sanitizer is a liquid or gel generally used to decrease infectious agents on the hands. They are available as liquids, gels, and foams.Formulations of alcohol-based versions are preferable to hand washing with soap and water in most situations in the healthcare setting.
    61. Head covers – Coveralls usually cover the head. Those using gowns, should use a head cover that covers the head and neck while providing clinical care for patients. Hair and hair extensions should fit inside the head cover.
    62. Health workers: A healthcare worker is one who delivers care and services to the sick and ailing either directly as doctors and nurses or indirectly as aides, helpers, laboratory technicians, sanitation worker
    63. Helpline Numbers; Central, State and Union Territories (UT’s) for corona-virus
    64. Home Quarantine – Home quarantine applies for people who are not ill but who have a known possible exposure.
    65. Home visits – are one made by a healthcare professional or ASHA worker, ANM to provide follow up care.
    66. Hotspot Districts: Hotspot districts are those from which more cases are being currently reported or where the rate of growth of cases is more i.e. that doubling rate of cases is less.
    67. HotSpot (clusters): As per CDC (Centre for disease control) Cluster refers to an aggregation of cases grouped in place and time that are suspected to be greater than number expected, even though the expected number may not be known. Even one case of Covid positive should be considered as a Cluster. Epidemiologically linked multiple cases will one cluster.
    68. HWC- Health and Wellness Centers is envisaged under Ayushman Bharat (AB) to deliver an expanded range of services to address the primary health care needs of the entire population in their area, expanding access, universality and equity close to the community.
    69. Hydroxychloroquine: It is an antimalarial drug. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has prohibited its sale without valid prescription by a doctor. On April 18th, MoHFW has warned that it is harmful for patients to consume HCQ without prescription.
    70. Hypochlorite -Hypochlorite was the original form of chloride used for the disinfection of drinking water.
    71. IATA – The International Air Transport Association ( IATA) is the trade association for the world’s airlines, representing some 260 members.
    72. ICMR – The Indian Council of Medical Research, the apex body in India for the formulation, coordination and promotion of biomedical research. In the preparedness for the COVID-19 outbreak in India, NIV Pune served as the apex laboratory to optimize the conventional and real-time PCR assays targeting different genomic regions of SARS-CoV-2 and initiate testing of suspected cases.
    73. ICAR: Indian Council agricultural research is an autonomous organisation under the Department of Agricultural Research and Education
    74. ICTV – International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses is concerned with the designation and naming of virus taxa
    75. IFA – Immunofluorescence assay is a standard virologic technique to identify the presence of antibodies by their specific ability to react with viral antigens expressed in infected cells bound to specific antigens.
    76. IGOT – The Integrated Government Online Training Programme (iGOT) courses on DIKSHA platform for capacity building of the staff working on COVID-19.
    77. ILI – Influenza-like Illness – An acute respiratory infection with: measured fever of ≥ 38 C° and cough; with onset within the last 10 days.
    78. IMO – The International Maritime Organization, known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization until 1982, is a specialised agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping.
    79. Imported cases : Imported cases only indicates locations where all cases have been acquired outside the location of reporting.
    80. Incident Commander : Ministry of Home Affair’s for effective implementation of COVID-19 Lockdown, has empowered District Magistrate’s to deploy Executive Magistrates as Incident Commanders in respective local jurisdictions. The Incident Commanders were made responsible for overall implementation of lock-down measures, issuances of passes for essential services, enforcement and resource mobilization. 
    81. Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) – Was launched by Union Minister of Health & Family Welfare in November 2004 to strengthen/maintain decentralized laboratory based IT enabled disease surveillance system for epidemic prone diseases to monitor disease trends and to detect and respond to outbreaks in early rising phase through trained Rapid Response Team (RRTs).
    82. IRS – Indoor residual spraying, that is done after the lockdown in specific areas.
    83. Isolation Facility – Isolation separates sick people with a contagious disease from people who are not sick.
    84. ITN – Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) are a form of personal protection that has been shown to reduce malaria illness, severe disease, and death due to malaria in endemic regions.
    85. IPC – Infection Prevention Control measures
    86. LAMP – Loop-mediated isothermal amplification. On April 17th 2020, the SCTIMST said that it has developed a low cost COVID-19 TEST kit based on LAMP method that would reveal the test results in two-hours.
    87. Local transmission: Indicates locations where the source of infection is within the reporting location 
    88. Lock down: Lock down is meant to prevent the spread of infection from one person to another, to protect ourselves and others. This means, not stepping out of the house except for buying necessities, reducing the number of trips outside, and ideally only a single, healthy family member making the trips when absolutely necessary
    89. MERS : Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory disease caused by a MERS‐CoV that was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012
    90. MoHFW –The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is an Indian government ministry charged with health policy in India.
    91. Mortality Rate : Measuring how many people die each year and why they have died is one of the most  informative ways of assessing the effectiveness of a country’s health system. Unit of Measure: Deaths per 100 000 population
    92. N95 respirators: The respiratory protective device of N95 comes with high filtration efficiency to airborne particles. Since these provide a much tighter air seal than triple layer medical masks, they are designed to protect the wearer from inhaling airborne particles.
    93. NACP: National AIDS Control Programme,The National AIDS Control Programme (NACP), launched in 1992, is being implemented as a comprehensive programme for prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in India
    94. NCDC National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) is an institute under the Indian Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
    95. NDMA – National Disaster Management Authority was enacted by the Government of India under the Disaster Management Act, which envisaged the creation of National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
    96. NHM – National Health Mission was launched by the government of India in 2013 subsuming the National Rural Health Mission and National Urban Health Mission.
    97. National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis – The ICMR-National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis [Formerly Tuberculosis Research Centre (TRC)], a permanent institute under the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), is an internationally recognized institution for Tuberculosis (TB) research.
    98. NPHCE – National Programme for Health Care of the Elderly(NPHCE) | National Health Portal Of India. Non-communicable diseases requiring large quantum of health and social care are extremely common in old age, irrespective of socio-economic status
    99. Orange Zone ( Hot Spot ) – A Red Zone district is declared ‘Orange Zone’, if it does not have a new positive case in the last 14 days. Essential services and minimum public activities are allowed.
    100. ORW –  Out-reach workers  States to enable peer educators (PEs) and out-reach workers (ORWs) under NACP to provide  multi-week (2-3 week) dispensation of commodities such as condom, needle and syringe, etc. to HRGs during the period of lockdown/restrictions.  
    101. Outbreak -outbreaks are usually caused by an infection, transmitted through person-to-person contact, animal-to-person contact, or from the environment or other media. 
    102. Pandemic : Pandemic refers to an epidemic that has spread over several countries or continents, usually affecting a large number of people.
    103. PCR – Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an experimental technique that uses polymerase enzymes to amplify specific genetic sequences that are flanked by a set of primers. PCR amplification can generate thousands of copies of a specific genetic sequence relatively rapidly, making it an ideal tool for identifying and studying specific mutations in the genetic code.
    104. PHC – The Primary Healthcare Center (PHC) is the basic structural and functional unit of the public health services in India.
    105. PHED – The Public Health Engineering Department (PHED) are those agencies under respective state governments that are responsible for augmenting water supply in areas where the supply may be deficient.
    106. PLHIV– In these groups, the term most often applied to people who are HIV-positive is “People Living With HIV/AIDS”.
    107. PMJAY empanelled hospital – Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana empanelled hospital. Network hospitals may be defined as those hospitals which allow for cashless hospitalization based on certain conditions.
    108. PMGKP: Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Package is a Insurance Scheme for Health Workers Fighting COVID-19
    109. PPE – Personal Protective Equipment is a specialized clothing or equipment worn by employees for protection against health and safety hazards. Personal protective equipment is designed to protect many parts of the body, i.e., eyes, head, face, hands, feet, and ears.
    110. PPE Kits : Personal Protective Equipment Kits Infection prevention and control measures include, inclusive of Face protection, goggles and mask or Face shield, gloves, gown or coverall, head cover, rubber boot.
    111. Primary Healthcare Centres – Primary health Centres addresses basic health needs of a person
    112. Prime Minister Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY) – Ayushman Bharat, a flagship scheme of Government of India, was launched as recommended by the National Health Policy 2017, to achieve the vision of Universal Health Coverage (UHC). Testing and treatment of COVID-19 was made available for free under Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana w.e.f April 4, 2020
    113. Quarantine: Is a process of separation and restriction of movement or activities of persons who are not ill but who are believed to have been exposed to infection, for the purpose of preventing transmission of disease. The recommended duration of quarantine for Covid-19 based on available information is upto 14 days from the time of exposure
    114. RMNCAH+A – The RMNCH+A strategy is built upon the continuum of care concept and is holistic in design, encompassing all interventions aimed at reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health under a broad umbrella, and focusing on the strategic lifecycle approach 
    115. Red Zone (Hot Spots) – Red zones comprise places with major outbreaks of COVID-19 positive cases. All activities, barring essential services such as medical emergencies and law enforcement, will be stopped in such areas.
    116. RT-PCR – Real time RT-PCR is a nuclear-derived method for detecting the presence of specific genetic material from any pathogen, including a virus
    117. Rural Health Statistics: It provides data of Rural Health such as Infrastructural information and building positions of Sub Centres, Primary Health Centres (PHCs) and Community Health Centres (CHCs). It also contains state wise number of Sub Divisional Hospital, District Hospital & Mobile Medical Units. Get state/Ut wise information of Specialist Doctors, Health Workers, Auxiliary Mid wife Nurse (ANM), Nursing Staffs, Health Assistants, Radiographers, Pharmacists. It includes information of staffs in position, requirement of staffs and shortfall. 
    118. SARI An acute respiratory infection.  An acute respiratory infection with: history of fever or measured fever of ≥ 38 C°; and cough; with onset within the last 10 days; and requires hospitalization.
    119. SARS-CoV-2: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus that causes COVID-19 
    120. Screening area:  Where patients can be screened for COVID-19 before allowing them to enter inside dialysis area 
    121. SCTIMS – Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences is an Institution of National Importance under the Department of Science and Technology (Govt. of India) at Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala. On April 17th 2020, the SCTIMST said that it has developed a low cost COVID-19 TEST kit based on LAMP method that would reveal the test results in two-hours.
    122. SCs: Sub Centers is the most peripheral and first contact point between the primary health care system and the community
    123. Shoe covers; Are made up of impermeable fabric to be used over shoes to facilitate personal protection and decontamination of health care workers, while on duty.
    124. Social Distancing – Social distancing, also called “physical distancing,” means keeping space between yourself and other people outside of your home or slow down the spread of a highly contagious disease.
    125. Sodium Hypochlorite – Coronaviruses are transmitted in most instances through large respiratory droplets and contact transmission, but other modes of transmission have also been proposed worldwid. Due to the potential survival of the virus in the environment for several days, the premises and areas potentially contaminated with the 2019-nCoV should be cleaned before their re-use, using products containing antimicrobial agents known to be effective against coronaviruses… Although there is lack of specific evidence for their effectiveness against 2019-nCoV virus, cleaning with water and household detergents and use of common disinfectant products should be sufficient for general precautionary cleaning. Tests carried out using SARS-CoV showed that sodium hypochlorite is effective 
    126. Spanish Flu: The 1918 influenza pandemic was the most severe pandemic caused by an H1N1 virus during 1918-1919.
    127. Strategies, Plans and Operations (WHO for COVID-19) – a plan of action designed to achieve a long-term or overall aim.
    128. Sub Divisional and District Hospitals – The Sub Divisional and District Hospitals are government hospitals with more than 30 beds.
    129. Surveillance : The house to house surveillance for Covid- 19 in the Containment Zone has to be done as per the cluster containment plan prepared at the district level and to take all measures to stop the spread of infection. It will be supervised by Medical Officers/ LHV assigned sectors within the defined surveillance zone both active and passive surveillance.
    130. Testing : The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) has issued a set of guidelines to private facilities testing for (COVID-19) 
    131. Test Kits: ICMR has recommended two RT-PCR (Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) test kits for use in ICMR approved government and private laboratories. These test kits have been found to have 100% concordance among true positive and true negative samples.
    132. Thermal scanners – Thermal scanners are effective in detecting people who have developed a fever (i.e. have a higher than normal body temperature) because of infection with the new coronavirus. However, they cannot detect people who are infected but are not yet sick with fever.
    133. Triage Area – Triage is a dedicated area in the hospital, where the process of determining the priority of patients’ treatments based on type of medical emergency is undertaken.
    134. Triple layer medical mask: It is a disposable mask, fluid-resistant, provide protection to the wearer from droplets of infectious material emitted during coughing/sneezing/talking 
    135. Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that usually affects the lungs, though it can affect any organ in the body. 
    136. Under Investigation; indicates locations where type of transmission has not been determined yet.
    137. US FDA -The Food and Drug Administration is responsible for protecting the public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, and medical devices; and by ensuring the safety of our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation.
    138. Vaccine: a substance containing a virus or bacterium in a form that is not harmful, given to a person or animal to prevent them from getting the disease that the virus or bacterium causes.
    139. VBD – Vector-borne diseases are human illnesses caused by parasites, viruses and bacteria that are transmitted by vectors.
    140. Ventilator – Ventilators, especially those used to manage and treat individuals with severe lung infections, people who develop symptoms consistent with COVID-19, who develop trouble breathing, this may be in the form of supplemental oxygen and/or breathing treatments.
    141. Virology :the scientific study of viruses and the diseases that they cause.
    142. VIRUS is a microscopic package of genetic material surrounded by a molecular envelope. The genetic material can be either DNA or RNA
    143. VTM – Viral Transport Media / Medium:  Are used for collecting Throat or Nasal swabs from patients
    144. WHO -World Health Organisation. WHO’s primary role is to direct international health within the United Nations’ system and to lead partners in global health responses.
    145. World Organisation of Animal Health (OIE) – The World Organisation for Animal Health, formerly the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) is an intergovernmental organization coordinating, supporting and promoting animal disease control.
    146. Wuhan City, China – recently gained prominence, after COVID-19 the infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered coronavirus had outbreak in the city in December 2019, until then this new virus and disease was not known before.

    The information contained in this document is intended for the purpose of general information and should not substitute individual expert advice or judgement of healthcare professionals.

    Compilation Reviewed by

    • Dr Santosh Rai MD DNB FRCR (UK), Consultant Radiologist


    Compiled by:

    • Harsha Raj Gatty, Editor, (Subs and Scribes Media Ventures LLP), Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
    • Muskaan Ala – Graduate student from St. Agnes College Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
    • Shivani Rao N – Freelance contributor, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India

    Last Updated; 06.33 PM IST, 18/04/2020  

    Daily Update: 0645 PM IST

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